Quick answer: No.
To Discover a Windows server, the MID Server host needs to have PowerShell 3.0 up to 5.1 installed, and that can only be installed on a Windows host, limiting the MID Server installs to Windows hosts too. A MID Server installed on a Linux host will not be able to run those PowerShell based probes and patterns.
PowerShell v6 on Linux is not an option because many PowerShell commands used by existing windows probes and patterns are not available in PowerShell 6.
However, if Agent Client Collector for Visibility (ACC-V) is being used to do the discovery of the Windows host the ACC is installed on, then the MID Server is simply passing on the results to the instance, and so a Linux MID Server could be used in that case. The MID Server is only being used fore the ACC endpoint and Web Server MID Server extensions, and those are supported on both Windows and Linux MID Servers.