You are trying to login to a ServiceNow instance using Single Sign on from a Desktop's browser. Once you provide your SSO credentials, the browser is redirected to logout success page. However, if the same user's credentials are used on a different desktop or a Mobile device to login to the same instance, then the login succeeds.
Any supported release.
Most possible cause is corrupt cookies in the browser, or old cookies if a new SSO configuration is being used. Confirm this possible cause by using an incognito window or in-private window to log in. If the login is successful, then the issue is related to cached cookies.
Clean up all cookies in your browser, then login again. This time the login should work as expected if incognito login test worked well.